continued from Part One
Twelve spokes, one wheel, navels three.
Who can comprehend this?
On it are placed together
three hundred and sixty like pegs.
They shake not in the least.
(Dirghatama, Rg Veda 1.164.48)
A seven-named horse does draw
this three-naved wheel...
Seven steeds draw the seven-wheeled chariot...
Wise poets have spun a seven-strand tale
around this heavenly calf, the Sun.
(Dirghatama, Rg Veda 1.164.1-5)
Where in Hell did Sexagismal numbers come from?
Maybe we should start with the question: What is a sexagismal number? We deal with sexagismal numbers all the time ( yes, that was a very bad pun). sexagismal numbers are based upon fractions of 60. Sexigismal numbers are the bases of our measures of degrees , minutes, seconds and hours, minutes, and seconds. Now we have a new question: How did the division of a circle and the division of a day come to have the same fractional components? The answer lies in a number system based on the sum of fractions of 60 that preceded both the notions of length of a day and division of the circle. As you might guess from that statement, sexagismal numbers are old; very old.
To get to the first vestiges of a base 60 numeric system we have to go back almost 6000 yes to the region then known as Sumeria. Sumerians were the first city dwellers. They actively traded goods, owned land, and by all accounts, had their share of disputes about price, ownership and value. In short: same problems, different millennia. The trade issues necessitate the development of a written language, and numerical system. They weren't worried about recording history, they were interested in recording profit. The mathematics of Sumeria preceded the invention of an alphabet by a few millennia, so it took a bit of time to decipher what they were recording and the numerology had a profound defect, which I'll talk about in a moment. Like the modern Arabic notation we use, the Sumerian numerical system was ordered right to left. For comparison purposes, let's take a look at our system first. The number 349 is really a short form of the numeric expression (3*100) + (4*10) + (1*9) + (0). The Sumerian expression 3,4,9 could mean (3*60) + (4*1) + (9/60) or it might mean (3*1) + (4/60) + (9/360). The numerology of Sumeria was context based, they didn't have a position for zero. They could form numbers with extreme precision, but without a context, the magnitude remains unknown.
The Sumerians recorded their numbers on clay tablets using a stylus. Tables were calculated of fractions of 60 and numerical equivalents were derived for sums of fractions. The clay dried and the records, while somewhat hard to decipher, represented a monumental amount of accumulated calculation. This effort was, as they say, "cast in stone". Over 4 millennia, Sumeria came and went, but those hardened tablets were recorded by many later civilizations .The beauty of the Sumerian system lay in it's extreme precision in fractions. The factors of 60 are 1,2,3,4,5,6,10,12, 15, 20 and 30. In the base 10 system the factors are 1,2, and 5. There is no exact numerical representation for the value of 1/3 in a base 10 system but in Sumerian notation it is simply 20/60. The paradox of Sumeria is the extreme precision coupled with a total lack of accuracy. This a common mathematical thread which holds older civilizations together. The fractions that the Sumerians labor sly cast in stone would become the basis for calculation of astronomical movements 4000 years later by the Greeks, and used in timing calculations to land a man on the moon over 6 millennia later.
FURTHER NOTES ON 360 ° THEORY OF POINTS CHAUDS
“Origin. The Degree symbol was originally the Egyptian Hieroglyphic symbol for the sun. The Egyptian year was only 360 days long and the circle was given ...”
Twelve spokes, one wheel, navels three. Who can comprehend this?
On it are placed together three hundred and sixty like pegs.
They shake not in the least.
(Dirghatama, Rig Veda 1.164.48)
The ancient cultures divided the sky into 36 "night stations" of stars. These could be divided into a total of 108 (36 x 3) segments or sars (Latvian zar- = "branch") for better detail. I simply calibrated the data by potentiating 108 by 10 to get 1080 (= 360 x 3) and then dividing by 3. This was applied to the individual "reigns" of the (Sumerian) kings. to get the degrees of arc of the circle.
For example, we potentiate 20 sars x 10 = 200. Then we divide by 3, which gives 66.66 degrees (of 360 degrees). When we do this with all of the lengths of reign, the total is 360°. Hence, the ancients are simply "sectioning" their ancient heavenly "clock" of stars. therefore
Each length of "reign" of a Sumerian "son of God"applies to a particular NAMED "heavenly" region of the 360-degree "circle" of heaven.
The length of "reign" listed for each alleged "king" is the distance in heliacal rising star days between consecutive "NAMES" on the list of kings. These names are identified in detail subsequently as specific stars in the heavens, moving within these six "heavenly houses", which 6 preceded the division of the heavens into 12.
The Iranian calendar ( Gahshomari-ye Irani) can refer to any in a succession of a set of calendars. They are used for over two millennia in Iran
.(The name Iran has been in use natively since the Sassanid period and came into international use from 1935, before which the country was known internationally as Persia...)
The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is a landlocked country in south central Asia. It is variously described as being located within Central Asia, South Asia, or the Middle East... and related societies
The current official Iranian calendar begins on the vernal equinox as determined by astronomical calculations for the Iran Standard Time meridian.
A meridian is an imaginary arc on the Earth's surface from the North Pole to the South Pole that connects all locations running along it with a given longitude. The position of a point on the meridian is given by the latitude. Each meridian is perpendicular to all circles of latitude at the (52.5°E or GMT+3.5h). This determination of starting moment is more accurate than the Gregorian calendar.The Gregorian calendar is the internationally accepted civil calendar. It was first proposed by the Calabrian doctor Aloysius Lilius, and decreed by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, on 24 February 1582 by the papal bull Inter gravissimas because it is synchronized with the vernal equinox year, but requires consulting an astronomical almanac. One of the longest chronological records in human history, the Iranian calendar has been modified time and again during its history to suit administrative, climatic, and religious purposes.
In English the current calendar is sometimes called "Solar Hejri" calendar, and its years are designated AP, short for Anno Persico. The Iranian year usually begins within a day of 21 March of the Gregorian calendar. To find the corresponding year of the Gregorian calendar, add 621 or 622 (depending on the time of the year) to a Solar Hejri year.
Although the earliest evidence of Iranian calendrical traditions is from the second millennium BC, predating the appearance of the Iranian prophet Zoroaster
Zoroaster or Zarathushtra , also referred to as Zartosht , was an ancient Iranian prophet and religious poet. The hymns attributed to him, the Gathas, are at the liturgical core of Zoroastrianism... the first fully preserved calendar is that of the Achaemenids. Throughout recorded history, Persians have been keen on the idea and importance of having a calendar
.They were among the first cultures to use a solar calendar. A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun .-Tropical solar calendars and have long favoured a solar over lunar
A lunar calendar is a calendar that is based on cycles of the moon phase. The only widely used purely lunar calendar is the Islamic calendar or Hijri calendar, whose year always consists of 12 lunar months and lunisolar
A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many cultures whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. If the solar year is defined as a tropical year then a lunisolar calendar will give an indication of the season; if it is taken as a sidereal year then the calendar will.
approaches. The sun has always been a symbol in Iranian culture and is closely related to the folklore regarding Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great , also known as Cyrus II of Persia and Cyrus the Elder, was the first Zoroastrian Persian Shahanshah... himself.
Old Iranian calendar
Old Persian inscriptions and tablets indicate that early Iranians used a 360-day calendar based on the Babylonian system and modified for their beliefs and day names. Its months had two or three divisions depending on the phase of the moon. Twelve months of 30 days were named for festivals or activities of the pastoral
Pastoral, as an adjective, refers to the lifestyle of shepherds and pastoralists, moving livestock around larger areas of land according to seasons and availability of water and food. "Pastoral" also describes literature, art and music which depicts the life of shepherds, often in a highly...year. A 13th month was added every six years to keep the calendar synchronized with the seasons.
* year: The Sumerians used a 360 day year by 2100 BC.
* week: The Babylonians introduced the seven day week, due to the belief that seven brought bad luck, so they did not want to work the seventh day.
* hour: The 12 hour day and 12 hour night originates from Mesopotamia. The length of these hours changed through the year, being equally spaced over the time of light and dark, respectively.
ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE ORIGIN OF DEGREES AND POINTS
“…the Gnostic consciousness, the mysticism of the Eucharist is a fundamental expression of the principles of Eros and Logos. Eros is the law of sexual joining or coming together and Logos is the law of rational structure or otganization of energy into patterns…..The descent of the divine into the events of human history is made possible by the existence of a succession of bishops, which extends back to the ancient priesthoods as well as at the time of the Christ and the Holy Apostles…The Old Roman Church … did teach the existence of such a (secret) map to be found in the body of the chela, which sowed actually where there were differences between the ideals or true placement of the powers in their collection of pacquets and what was the actual result of the process of incarnation” Michael Bertiaux
“…I made use of some inner drive and developed on the physical plane a particular structure of lattices and connective circuits, which were probably latent in an otherwise purely verbal system…That rather lifeless system, which contained some rather lifeless Egyptian roots, was really quite remarkable. It was the design for the computer and energy system of what we might now be tempted to call something like a UFO object or projection form some empirical or chaotic marma; but which at that time, as strange as it might seem to the uninformed reader of these matters, was posing rather inconspicuously as an Egyptian Rite of Ancient Freemasonry with the name of ‘Memphis-Misraim.’” Michael Bertiaux 97°
“"The Masonic Fraternity is the modern repository of the Mysteries." Leslie M. Scott, 33°, 1946
“So it was that Charles E. (‘Ted’) Webber…approached me about The Sirius Mystery…He said\ quietly to me: ‘We are very interested in your book The Sirius Mystery. We realize you have written this without any knowledge of the traditions of Masonry, and you may not be aware of this, but you have made some discoveries which relate to the most central Masonic traditions at a high level, including some things none of us ever knew…I asked him what sort of connection there was and he did mention specifically that it was my work on ancient Egypt, on Isis and Osiris, and the ancient traditions of the star Sirius…” Robert Temple
“Master: ‘This Serpent, forming a circle, is an emblem of eternity, which is without beginning or end. It has the property of renewing its skin, and thus figures the destruction and renewal of nature, which appears to weaken and even perish at certain epochs; but which only grows old to renew its youth and prepare itself for new revolutions.
‘The Phoenix is a still more natural exposition of the succession and the perpetuation of the principle in nature. Mythology has represented the bird as reviving from its own ashes, emblemizing hoe all things earthly will continue to be reborn from itself.
‘To this may be added that it symbolized the cycle of the Star Sirius or Sothis of 1461 years.
“sign – Represent examination, as if through a telescope.
“Token – Join left hands, and point to Sirius, or Sothis, with right index finger.
“Pass Word – SIGE (silence) ALETTHE (TRUTH)
“Word - Balder”
53rd Degree Knight of Sage of the Phoenix, Memphis Rite
"Sumerians have the distinction of being the earliest inhabitants of the Fertile Crescent region. Beginning 8,000-years B.C.E., Sumerian culture realized a priest-astronomer class, improved agrarian techniques and developed the first sexagesimal (base 60) numbering system." Clark Nelson
“In 1936, a tablet was excavated some 200 miles from Babylon. Here one should make the interjection that the Sumerians were first to make one of man's greatest inventions, namely, writing; through written communication, knowledge could be passed from one person to others, and from one generation to the next and future ones. They impressed their cuneiform (wedge-shaped) script on soft clay tablets with a stylus, and the tablets were then hardened in the sun. The mentioned tablet, whose translation was partially published only in 1950, is devoted to various geometrical figures, and states that the ratio of the perimeter of a regular hexagon to the circumference of the circumscribed circle equals a number which in modern notation is given by 57/60 + 36/(60^2) (the Babylonians used the sexagesimal system, i.e., their base was 60 rather than 10).
“ The Babylonians knew, of course, that the perimeter of a hexagon is exactly equal to six times the radius of the circumscribed circle, in fact that was evidently the reason why they chose to divide the circle into 360 degrees (and we are still burdened with that figure to this day). The tablet, therefore, gives ... Pi = 25/8 = 3.125.
“So that's who gave us the 360 degrees in the circle. See, assignment of degree-measure to angles is somewhat arbitrary. Some choices are more natural than others, though, and when you're working in base 60, 6x60 is a pretty natural choice.” Petr Beckmann
"The initiatory pageants, once celebrated with ceremonies and ritual in Greece, Asia Minor, Egypt, and Mesopotamia, are now known to have taken place in one form or another in many countries and on most continents. The goal was to unfold consciousness, urging it on to heights of which it was formerly unaware, for the aim of the Mysteries has ever been a "discipline and stimulus to virtue" William R. Laudahn
The Work continues click here
Go to Part ONE Click Here.
UPDATES ON THE WORK click here
and click here and click here